Text Click for more information LY 1.1.0.0.1.0   論語·學而第一·1/1
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LY 1.1.0.0.1.0
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論語·學而第一·1/1
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LY
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Text Editions; Translation by Click for more information (possibly modified) LY 01.01; tr. CH
 
Chinese Text Click for more information Translation Click for more information
1 子曰: The Master said,
2 「學而時習之, "Having studied something to exercise it in practice, at the proper times,
3 不亦說乎? isn't that satisfying?
4 有朋自遠方來, To have a colleague come from a distant region
5 不亦樂乎? isn't that delightful?
6 人不知而不慍, When others do not appreciate one not to feel offended
7 不亦君子乎?」 isn't that behaving in a gentlemanly fashion?"
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Notes on Translation Click for more information (8)
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1 Zǐ 子 does refer to the Master, but the word perhaps came to mean "Master" only because it was used here to refer to Confucius. In any case, MA RONG takes zǐ 子 to be a general term for an adult male here.
2 學 does NOT normally mean "learn" as a success verb. It means "try to learn, engage in the learning process, typically the learning process to do something".
2 Xí 習 is not to "rehearse" pieces of learning (as opposed to some performance) but to exercise a skill in practice. This text is not about repetition of what has been swatted up (not even repetition of actions), but about practising the moral lessons one has tried to learn. Compare:
LY 17.02; tr. CH
子曰 2. The Master said,
性相近也 "By nature men are close to each other,
習相遠也 Through practice they diverge from each other."
3 悅 is personal satisfaction rather than shared delight, which is lè 樂.
4 A péng 朋 "person from the same school (同門)" is not a yǒu 友 "soul-mate (同志)".
6 Zhī 知 is probably not to publicly recognize but to personally appreciate in this context. In any case, the distinction needs attention.
6 Yùn 慍 is something like "to resent, to take offence" and certainly never means anything like "be disheartened".
7 Jūnzǐ 君子 is here used as an intransitive denominal verb "be gentlemanly", negated by the verbal negation bù 不.
 
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Chinese Text Click for more information Alternative Translation Click for more information
子曰:
「學而時習之,
不亦說乎?
有朋自遠方來,
不亦樂乎?
人不知而不慍,
不亦君子乎?」
The Master said, "To study and to practise/rehearse [what one has studied] in due course, is that not satisfying? When there is a colleague from afar is that not a joy? When others do not recognise one then not to feel angry, is that not gentlemanly?
D.C. Lau, p. 3
The Master said,洍s it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application? 洍s it not delightful to have friends coming from distant quarters? 洍s he not a man of complete virtue, who feels no discomposure though men may take no note of him?
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Cross References
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Lexeme Entry Attributions Click for more information (22)
  Line No. Click for more information Character(s) Click for more information Phonological Profile Click for more information Synonym Group Label Click for more information Syntactic Category Click for more information Semantic Category Click for more information Lexeme Entry Definition Click for more information Evidential Value Click for more information
1 zǐ *tsɨ 精之上 **sklɯʔ (?) TEACHER n[post-N] our master; person in authority [Note that the [post-N] can never in fact be made explicit without breaking the rules of the grammar! CH]
2 zhī *tɕɨ 章之平 **kljɯ (?) PRONOUN npro.postVt nonref cognate object; indefinite dummy object pronouns without reference: things, people; someone 以約失之者"Those who, through keeping to the main thing, get things wrong"
2 xué *ɦɣɔk 匣覺入 **ɡruuɡ (?) STUDY vi act devote oneself to study; be devoted to study; engage in intellectual work; work to improve oneself morally/intellectually
2 shí *dʑɨ 禪之平 **ɡljɯ (?) TIMELY nadV appropriate at the appropriate time; when the need arises Note 非時
2 shí *dʑɨ 禪之平 **ɡljɯ (?) OFTEN nadV from time to time> sometimes; often; periodically; several times
2 ér *ȵɨ 日之平 **njɯ (?) AND padV1.postV2 temp.sequence and then, and thereupon; 拜而受之" accepted this with a bow" (often coordinates two verbal predicates with the same subject)
3 悅/說 yuè *jiɛt 以薛入 **lod (?) / yuè *jiɛt 以薛入 (?) DELIGHT vi SU.nonhu be delightful
3 不亦 bù - yì *pi̯ut - jiɛk 幫物入 - 以昔入 **pɯʔ - k-laɡ (?) CERTAIN PPadV.+HU1 surely
4 fāng *pi̯ɐŋ 幫陽平 **paŋ (?) TERRITORY n region; ZUO: other regions, local areas 10
4 yǒu *ɦɨu 云尤上 **ɢʷɯʔ (?) EXIST vt0oN{SUBJ} exist there are (subjects); there is 有人
4 péng *bəŋ 並登平 **bɯɯŋ (?) FRIEND n[post-N] one's (own) schoolmate; comrade, friend 10
4 péng *bəŋ 並登平 **bɯɯŋ (?) FRIEND n[post-N] one's (own) schoolmate; comrade, friend
4 zì *dzi 從脂去 **sblids (?) FROM vtoN.adV OBI 5: from; starting out from a place; also a time: 所自生 "that wherefrom something is born" 10
4 yuǎn *ɦi̯ɐn 云元上 **ɢʷanʔ (?) DISTANT vadN in the far distance, far away; from far away
5 lè *lɑk 來鐸入 **ɡ-raawɡ (?) DELIGHT vi SU.nonhu of things: be delightful
6 rén *ȵin 日真平 **njin (?) OTHER npro nonref other people quite generally [NOT: the other one]
6 yùn *ʔi̯un 影文去 **quns (?) ANGUISH vi tr feel resentment or indignation; feel offended; show lingering anger and resentment; show indignation
6 zhī *ʈiɛ 知支平 **te (?) RESPECT vtoN appreciate properly, recognise (a person for his true value); repect properly for what a person is
6 ér *ȵɨ 日之平 **njɯ (?) THEN padV.post-S logical then
7 hū *ɦuo̝ 匣模平 **ɢaa (?) EXCLAMATORY PARTICLE ppostadS quest.rhet.no! particle introducing rhetorical questions
7 不亦 bù - yì *pi̯ut - jiɛk 幫物入 - 以昔入 **pɯʔ - k-laɡ (?) CERTAIN PPadV.+HU1 surely
7 君子 jūn - zǐ *ki̯un - tsɨ 見文平 - 精之上 **klun - sklɯʔ (?) GOOD VPi mor.psych be gentlemanly; be high-minded 君子哉!; be superior as a person 不亦君子乎; be worthy of a person of superior character
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Lexeme Relation Attributions Click for more information (1)
  Line From Click for more information Line To Click for more information Lexeme Relation Formula Click for more information Lexeme Relation Definition Click for more information Evidential Value Click for more information
3 5 Contr(悅/說/DELIGHT) = (樂/DELIGHT) 悅 as individual pleased satisfaction contrasts with 樂 as shared delight.
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Rhetorical Device Attributions Click for more information (8)
  Line From Click for more information Line To Click for more information Rhetorical Device Click for more information Rhetorical Device Definition Click for more information Evidential Value Click for more information
2 7 TRICOLON-2+1+CRESCENDO 三分法-趨上Traditionally: auxesis, governed by the famous "Gesetz der wachsenden Glieder".
3 3 QUAESTIO-RHETORICA-CONCLUDING 反詰結論法 Conclusion of a passage in the form of a rhetorical question.
3 7 ANAPHORA-MULTIPLE 多次同端法 /x.../x.../ANAPHORA involving more than two identical repetitions in a consecutive series.
Note that there are also multiple analogous and even sentential anaphora cases.
3 5 VARIATIO REPETITIO which consists in reverting to the same meaning using different words.
Use of a different word for similar meaning, at least partly for euphonic variation
3 7 ISOCOLON+PARALLEL+REPETITIO-MULTIPLE 通常對偶法﹣多次
5 5 QUAESTIO-RHETORICA-CONCLUDING 反詰結論法 Conclusion of a passage in the form of a rhetorical question.
7 7 QUAESTIO-RHETORICA-CONCLUDING 反詰結論法 Conclusion of a passage in the form of a rhetorical question.
7 7 ANTHIMERIA-PHRASE ANTHIMERIA with respect to a complex expression rather than a single word.
詞組活用法 The abnormal use of a whole phrase in a function this phrase does not normally have.
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