An Historical and Comparative Encyclopaedia of Chinese Conceptual Schemes
General Editor: Christoph Harbsmeier 何莫邪; Associate Editor: Jiang Shaoyu 蔣紹愚
Texts / Hitlist
|Dating||Text ID||Text Reference||Text||Translation|
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.25.1.5.0||左傳·12·25·1/5||
She became his favourite,
and was put inthe position of his wife.
Her brother K'e
was grandson of the sister of T'ae-shuh Tsih,
and , when young, had been brought up in the palace.
He was afterwards made minister of Instruction;
but when the favour of the lady declined,
he was made guilty of some offence.
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.25.1.6.0||左傳·12·25·1/6||
The duke kept employing the workmen of the three departments for a great length of time.
He also made Keaou, a player, covenant with K'euen Me,
kept him near to himself, and very much trusted him.
In consequence of all these things, Pe superintendent of the markets, Kung-sun Me-mow,
Kung-wan Yaou, Heae minister of Crime, and K'e minister of Instruction, took advantage of (the dissatisfaction of the) workmen and K'euen Me to raise an insurrection.
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.25.1.7.0||左傳·12·25·1/7||
Armed with sharp weapons,
and those of them who were not so provided with axes,
they sent K'euen Me into the duke's palace;
and beginning to make a great noise at the palace of the (late) eldest son, Tsih, they attacked the duke.
Keuen Tsze-sze asked leave to oppose them;
but Me held his hand,
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.25.1.8.0||左傳·12·25·1/8||
"You are bold indeed;
but what good can you do to the duke?
Do you not see the case of the late ruler?
Let the marquis go whereever he pleases.
He has, moreover, already been abroad;
why should he not return?
At present (resistance is of no use).
The anger of the multitude is not to be encountered.
Let it pass away, and it will be easy to find an opportunity."
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.25.1.9.0||左傳·12·25·1/9||
The duke accordingly left the city.
(At first) he proposed boing to P'oo;
but Me said,
"Tsin is not to be trusted;
don't go there."
He then proposed going to Keuen,
but Me said,
Ts'e and Tsin will be quarelling about us."
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.25.1.10.0||左傳·12·25·1/10||
Next he proposed going to Ling;
but Me said,
"Loo is not sufficient to have any dealings with it.
Let us go to Shing-tss'oo,
to draw the notice of Yueh,
which now has a ruler."
Accordingly, the duke went on the way to Shing-ts'oo.
"The robbers of Wei must not get to know (wherewe are);
let us make haste.
I will go first;"
and he thus carried the valuables which they had with them in his chariot and returned.
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.25.1.11.0||左傳·12·25·1/11||
The duke (by and by) formed his men into separate bands,
and, by means of a correspondence with the prayer-maker Hwuy, made incursions into Wei,
to the distress of the people.
E-tsze knew of the circumstance,
went to see Tsze-che, (The Kung-sun Me-mow)
and begged that he would drive out Hwuy.
"He has committed no offence."
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.25.1.12.0||左傳·12·25·1/12||
"He loves to monopolize all profit, and is lawless.
You would see, if the duke returned to the capital,
that he would be the first to lead the way.
If you drive him out,
he will escape by the south gate,
and go where the duke is.
Yueh has recently got the control of the States;
they will be sure to go there, and ask the assistance of an army."
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.25.1.13.0||左傳·12·25·1/13||
When Hwuy was in the court,
an officer was sent to send away all the members of his household.
He went out (after them),
stopped outside two nights
without being recalled;
and on the fifth day
lodged in Wae-le.
He then became a favourite (with the duke),
and advised him to go to Yueh to ask the help of a force.
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.25.2.1.0||左傳·12·25·2/1||
In the sixth month,
the duke arrived form Yueh.
Ke K'eng-tsze and Mang Woo-pih met him at Woo-woo.
Kwoh Ch'ung drove the duke's carriage;
and when he saw the two ministers,
"They speak much evil.
Let your lordship pay particular attention to them."
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.25.2.2.0||左傳·12·25·2/2||
The duke took refreshment at Woo-woo,
and Woo-pih presented him with the cup of congratulation.
Disliking Kwoh Ch'ung,
"How stout he is!"
Ke-sun then asked
that Woo-pih should be made to drink (a cup of spirits),
adding, "In consequence of Loo's being so near its enemies,
we were not able to follow your lordship,
and so escaped so great a journey;
but why should he say that Ch'ung has got fat?"
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.25.2.3.0||左傳·12·25·2/3||
"Can one who eats many of his words," said the duke,
"escape getting fat?"
They drank (in this way) without any pleasure,
and enmity now commenced between the duke and his great officers.
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.26.1.1.0||左傳·12·26·1/1||
In the (duke's) twenty-sixth year, in summer, in the fifth month,
Shuh-sun Shoo, at the head of a force, joined Kaou Joo
and How Yung ofYueh, and Yoh Fei of Sung, in an expedition to restore the marquis of Wei.
Wan-tsze wished to receive him;
but E-tsze said to him,
"The ruler is obstinate and oppressive.
Wait a little.
He is sure to vent his poison on the people,
who will consequently be of one mind with you."
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.26.1.2.0||左傳·12·26·1/2||
(In a little), the (invading) army made an incursion on Wae-chow, (on behalf of the marquis of) Wei,
and obtained great spoil;
and the troops which went forth to resist them
were greatly defeated.
(On this, the marquis) dug up the grave of Ting-tsze, superintendent of the markets,
and burned his body on the top of P'ing-chwang.
Wan-tsze sent Wang-sun Ts'e privately to ask Kaou Joo
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.26.1.3.0||左傳·12·26·1/3||
whether he meant utterly to extinguish Wei,
or simply to restore the marquis.
Kaou Joo said
that his ruler's orders to him were simply
that he should restore the ruler;
and on this Wan-tsze assembled the people, and put the thing to them,
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.26.1.4.0||左傳·12·26·1/4||
"The ruler has now attacked the city with those wild people of the south and east,
till it is nearly destroyed.
Let us receive him back."
"Don't receive him."
He went on,
"It will be a benefit to you if you go away.
Allow me to go out at the north gate."
"You shall not go out," all urged.
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.26.1.5.0||左傳·12·26·1/5||
They then sent great bribes to the officers of Yueh,
threw open the gates, manned the parapets, and (offered) to receive the duke.
He, however, did not venture to enter the city;
and, the armies withdrawing,
the people of Wei raised duke Taou to the marquisate.
Nan-she (I.e.Wan-tsze) acted as a minister to him,
and made over Shing-ts'oo to Yueh.
The (expelled) duke said,
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.26.1.6.0||左傳·12·26·1/6||
"This is K'es doing;"
and he told all (the ladies) who had any quarrel with his wife (K'e's sister) to vent their spite on her.
K'e having been sent on a complimentary mission to Yueh,
the duke attacked him, and carried off his oofferings.
K'e laid the matter before the king,
who ordered him to retake the things,
which, with the assistance of a large body of men, he died.
The duke was angry,
put to death the son of K'e's sister whom he declared his successor,
and afterwards died in Yueh.
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.26.2.1.0||左傳·12·26·2/1||
Duke King of Sung had no son,
but took Tih and K'e, the sons of Kung-sun Chow, and brought them up in his palace,
without appointing either of them, however, to be his successor.
At this time Hwang Hwan was master of the Right;
Hwang Fei-go, grand marshal;
Hwang Hwae, minister of Instruction;
Ling Puh-hwan, master of the Left;
Yoh Fei, minister of Works;
and Yoh Choo-ts'oo, grand-minister of Crime.
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.26.2.2.0||左傳·12·26·2/2||
These six ministers belonging to three clans conducted the government with harmony.
They should have communicated with the duke through Ta-yin;
but that minister constantly kept back their representations,
and gave them commands according to his pleasure, pretending that they were from the duke.
The people hated him,
and the minister of Works wanted to take him off;
but the master of the Left said,
"Let him alone,
till he fill up the measure of his iniquity.
When he is like a heavy vessel without any foundation,
is it possible he should not be overthrown?"
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.26.2.3.0||左傳·12·26·2/3||
In winter, in the tenth month,
the duke was taking relaxation by the marsh of K'ung;
and on Sin-sze,
he died in Leen-chung.
Ta-yin raised thousand men-at-arms from the soldiers near the marsh,
and conveyed the duke's (body) from K'ung-t'ung to the capital. Having gone with it to the Yuh palace,
he sent to call the six ministers,
there was a report that there were enemies in the State,
and that the duke wished them to frame measures for the emergency.
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.26.2.4.0||左傳·12·26·2/4||
When they arrived
he made the men-at-arms seize them, and said to them,
"The ruler is very ill,
and asks you to make a covenant;"
and accordingly they covenanted in the courtyard of the small chamber,
that they would do nothing disadvantageous to the ducal House.
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.26.2.5.0||左傳·12·26·2/5||
Ta-yin then declared K'e to be the successor to the State,
bore the coffin to the ancestral temple, and set it forth there;
but it was not till the third day that the thing was known in the city.
Fei, the minister of Works, spread it abroad through the city
that Ta-yin had deceived the ruler
and sought to monopolize all gain to himself,
that the duke had now died without any illness;
that Ta-yin had concealed his death;
and that things could not be accounted for on any other ground
but the crime of Ta-yin.
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.26.2.6.0||左傳·12·26·2/6||
Tih dreamt that K'e was lying outside the Loo gate with his head to the north,
and that he himself was a bird which was settled upon him.
His beak reached ot the south gate,
and his tail to the T'ung gate.
"I have dreamt," said he, " a beautiful dream.
I shall succeed to the State."
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.26.2.7.0||左傳·12·26·2/7||
Ta-yin then considered
that, as he was not in the covenant,
and they might drive him out,
he had better impose a second covenant onthe ministers;
and he therefore ordered the priest to prepare the writing.
The ministers were then in T'ang-yu;
and just as the time for the covenant was at hand,
the priest Seang told Hwang Fei-go of the writing,
Fei-go consulted with Tsze-loo, Tih the ooverseer of the gates,
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.26.2.8.0||左傳·12·26·2/8||
and the master of the Left,
whether they could not get the people
to drive him out for them.
They then returned to their houses, and gavve out their armour,
sending notice round the city to this effect,
"Ta-yin keeps the ruler in a State of delusion,
and insolently oppresses the ducal House.
Those who side with us
will be saviours of the ruler."
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.26.2.9.0||左傳·12·26·2/9||
The multitude responded,
"Let us side with them."
Ta-yin, (on his part), sent round a notice, saying,
"The clans of Tae and Hwang (The Yoh were descended fromduke Tae) wish to injure the ducal House.
Those who side with me
need have no trouble about not becoming rich.
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.26.2.10.0||左傳·12·26·2/10||
The multitude said,
"It is not different (from a ducal notice)!"
Tae-she and Hwang-she wished to attack the duke,
but Yoh Tih said,
He is a criminal because of his violent proceeding with the duke,
but if we attack the duke,
our conduct will be more violent than his."
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.26.2.11.0||左傳·12·26·2/11||
They then made the people hold Ta-yin as the offender,
and that officer fled to Ts'oo, taking K'e with him.
They then raised Tih to be duke,
with the minister of Works as chief minister.
They made a covenant
that the members of their three clans should all share in the government
and not injure one another.
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.26.3.1.0||左傳·12·26·3/1||
Duke Ch'uh of Wei sent a messenger with a bow from Shing- ts'oo to Tsze-kung,
to ask him
whether he would re-enter Wei again.
Tsze-kung bowed his head to the ground, received the bow,
"I do not know."
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.26.3.2.0||左傳·12·26·3/2||
(Afterwards), he said privately to the messenger,
"Formerly, duke Ch'ing withdrew to Ch'in (V.xxviii.7);
but , through the covenant of Yuen-puh, brought about by Ning Woo-tsze and Sun Chwang-tsze, he entered again.
Duke Heen withdrew to Ts'e (IX.xiv.4);
but throught covenant of E-e, brought about by Tsze-seen and Tsze-chen, he entered again (IX.xxvi.3).
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.26.3.3.0||左傳·12·26·3/3||
Your ruler has now twice withdrawn from his State.
I have not heard of his having relatives like those of Heen,
or ministers like those of Ch'ing;-
I do not know by what means he is to re-enter.
It is said in the ode (She, IV.i. Pt.i. ode IV.3),
'Nothing gives strength like the employment of right men;
All througout the State obey them."
If he (only) had the men,
and the four quarters of the State regarded him as their lord,
what difficulty would there be with the capital?"
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.27.1.1.0||左傳·12·27·1/1||
In the (duke's) twenty-seventh year, in spring,
the viscount of Yueh sent How Yung on a complimentary mission to Loo,
and to speak about the lands of Choo,
that the boundary between it and Loo should be T'ae-shang.
In the second month,
a covenant was made at P'ing-yang,
in which the three ministers all followed the envoy.
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.27.1.2.0||左傳·12·27·1/2||
K'ang-tzse was vexed about this,
and spoke about Tsze-kung,
"If he had been here,
I should not have come to this."
did you not call him?" asked Woo-pih.
"I was indeed going to call him," was the reply.
Wan-tsze (Shuh-sun) said,
"Pray, think of it another time."
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.27.2.1.0||左傳·12·27·2/1||
In summer, in the fourth month, on Ke-hae,
Ke K'ang-tsze died.
The duke went to offer his condolences;
but his ceremonies were not what the occasion required.
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.27.3.1.0||左傳·12·27·3/1||
Seun Yaou of Tsin led a force against Ch'ing,
and halted at Tung-k'ew,
while in the meantime Sze Hwang of Ch'ing went to be assistance from Ts'e.
When the army of Ts'e was being raised,
Ch'in Ch'ing-tsze assembled the sons of officers who had died in battle for the State, and presented them for three days in the court,
giving also to each a carriage with two horses,
and assigning to him five cities (=hamlets).
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.27.3.2.0||左傳·12·27·3/2||
He called to him Tsin, the son of Yen Choh-tseu,
and said to him,
"In the action at Seih (The Le-k'ew of XXIII.2),
your father died.
In consequence of the many troubles of the State
we were not able to think of you before.
But now the ruler confers on you these cities,
and to appear at ocurt with these robes and carriage.
Do not make void the service of your father."
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.27.3.3.0||左傳·12·27·3/3||
After this (Ch'ing-tsze) proceeded to the relief of Ch'ing.
When he arrived at Lew-shoo,
and was (only) seven le from Kuh,
the people of that place were not aware of his approach.
When he got to the Puh,
it had rained
so that they could not cross.
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.27.3.4.0||左傳·12·27·3/4||
"(The troops of) the great State are quitte close to our poor capital,
and therefore we sent to tell you of our distress.
But now your army does not go on,
and I am afraid it will not be in time."
Ch'ing-tsze having on a (rain-) cloak, and leaning on a spear,
stood upon the bank,
and now helped forward, now whipt on, the horses which were unwilling to proceed.
When Che Pih heard of this,
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.27.3.5.0||左傳·12·27·3/5||
"I consulted the tortoise-shell about attacking Ch'ing,
and not about fighting with Ts'e."
(At the same time) he sent a message to Ch'ing-tsze, saying,
"You Sir, are a son of Ch'in,
sprung from the House of Ch'in.
That Ch'in has lost its sacrifices (Having been extinguished by Ts'oo; see XVII.4)
was owing to the crime of Ch'ing.
My ruler therefore sent me to examine into the justice of (the fate of) Ch'in,
thinking that, possible, you would have a regard for Ch'in.
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.27.3.6.0||左傳·12·27·3/6||
If you consider that the overthrow of your root is an advantage to you,
what is it to me?"
Ch'ing-tsze, in a rage, said,
"All who have heaped insults on others have (soon) passed away;-
can Che Pih continue long?"
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.27.3.7.0||左傳·12·27·3/7||
Chung-hang Wan-tsze (A refugee in Ts'e) told Ch'ing-tsze, saying,
"One from the army of Tsin informed me
that they were going with thousand light chariots to attack the gate of the army of Ts'e,
which might thus be entirely destroyed."
"My ruler charged me
that I should not fall on a small force,
nor fear a large one.
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.27.3.8.0||左傳·12·27·3/8||
Though they come with more than thousand chariots,
I should not avoid them.
I will inform my ruler of your communication."
"Now I know the (folly) of my leaving Tsin.
A superior man, in forming his plans,
considers every thing,-the beginning, the middle, and the end,-
and then he enters on his course.
But now I took mine, without knowing any one of these;-
is it not hard?"
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.27.4.1.0||左傳·12·27·4/1||
The duke was distressed and annoyed by the arrogance of the three Hwans,
and wished for the help of the other princes to take them off.
The three Hwans were in like manner distressed and annoyed by the rudeness of the duke,
and thus there arose many differences between him and them.
The duke had been rambling in Ling-fan,
and met Mang Woo-pih in the street of Mang-she.
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.27.4.2.0||左傳·12·27·4/2||
"Let me ask you," said he to him,
"if I shall (be permitted to) die (a natural death)."
that he had no means of knowing.
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.27.4.3.0||左傳·12·27·4/3||
Thrice the duke put the question,
till the minister declined to give any answer.
The duke then wished, with the help of Yueh, to attack Loo, and take off the three Hwans.
In autumn, in the eighth month,
he went to Kung-sun Yew-hing's,
and thence withdrew to Choo,
from which he went on to Yueh.
The people attributed the blame of this to Kung-sun Yew-shan (I.e.Yew- hing).
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.27.5.1.0||左傳·12·27·5/1||
Seun Yaou of Tsin led a force to lay siege to (the capital of) Ch'ing.
Before he arrived,
Sze Hwang of that State said,
"Che Pih is obstinate, and fond of victory.
If we tender our submission early,
he will take his departure."
He therefore in the first place put Nan-le (A place outside the walls) in a state of defence, and waited for the approach of Yaou.
He entered Nan-le,
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.27.5.2.0||左傳·12·27·5/2||
and attacked the Keih-teeh gate.
On the side of Ch'ing they made prisoner He Kwei-luy,
and tried to bribe him by offering him a share in the government.
He kept his mouth shut, however, and submitted to death.
Che Pih said to Chaou-mang,
"Do you enter the city;"
but that minister replied,
"You are here yourself; (do you enter it)."
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.27.5.3.0||左傳·12·27·5/3||
"Ugly and without courage as you are,
how were you made chief of the Chaou?" said Yaou.
"As I am able," rejoined Chaou-mang, "to submit to such a disgrace (from you),
perhaps I shall not cause any injury to the House of Chaou."
|middle Warring States||ZUO 0.12.27.5.4.0||左傳·12·27·5/4||
Che Pih made no alteration in his conduct;
and from this time he was an object of hatred to Chaou Seang-tsze,
and the issue was his ruin.
Che Pih was greedy and self-willed,
so that the chiefs of the Han and Wei revolted from him, and (joined in) his destruction.