An Historical and Comparative Encyclopaedia of Chinese Conceptual Schemes
General Editor: Christoph Harbsmeier 何莫邪; Associate Editor: Jiang Shaoyu 蔣紹愚
Texts / Hitlist
|Dating||Text ID||Text Reference||Text||Translation|
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 10.0.0.0.0.4||百喻經·三重樓喻/4||
The fool went on to say:
"I don't want the rooms in the lower two storeys.
You should first build the upper rooms for me.
The carpenter answered as follows:
"There is no such thing.
How could it be that without building the lowest storey rooms one gets to build the second floor;
and without building the second floor,
how can one get to build the rooms on the third floor?
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 10.0.0.0.0.5||百喻經·三重樓喻/5||
The fool insisted and said:
"I have no use now for the lower two storeys.
You must build the top floor for me!"
At the time, whenn other people heard about this
they generated in themselves blame and laughter,
and they made the following speech:
"How can one have anyone who does not build the first floor
and gets to the upper ones?"
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 10.0.0.0.0.6||百喻經·三重樓喻/6||
This like the Buddha's four kinds of disciples.
They are unable to use proper spiritualediligence and to cultivate and respect the Three Treasures.
They are all lazy and devoid of energy,
but they desire to seek the fruits of the Way of Buddhism,
and they speak as follows:
"We do not now need the other three Fruits of Buddhist wisdom,
we shall only want to get that fruit of Aluohan-wisdom."
These will also get laughed at by the people of their times.
They are like that fool, all the same and no different.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 220.127.116.11.0.1||百喻經·婆羅門殺子喻/1||
Once upon a time there was a brahman
who imagined that he knew a great deal.
When it came to the arts of astronomy and the various professional skills, he knew them all.
Relying on himself in this way
he desired to show off his virtuous talents.
And so he went to another country
He carried his child in his arms and moaned.
Someone asked the brahman as follows:
"Why are you moaned."
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 18.104.22.168.0.2||百喻經·婆羅門殺子喻/2||
The brahman said:
"Now this small child will die within seven days,
I am moved by its very early death
and that is the only reason I am moaning."
The people at the time told him:
"Human life is hard to predict
when one makes one's calculations one tends to get things wrong.
Suppose now that within these seven days by any chance the child is able to survive,
then why are you now weeping before the event?"
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 22.214.171.124.0.3||百喻經·婆羅門殺子喻/3||
The brahman said:
"Sun and moon may eclipse and get darkened,
stars and constellations may fall out of the sky.
In what I have predicted I have never made a mistake."
For the sake of material benefit,
when the seventh day came,
he killed his own child
in order to prove the correctness of his own prediction.
At that time his contemporaries, after seven days, when they heard that his child had died,
all sighed and said:
"He is truly a wise man.
What he says does not turn out untrue."
In their minds they generated trust in the man
and they all came to show him their respect.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 126.96.36.199.0.4||百喻經·婆羅門殺子喻/4||
This is like the four kinds of disciples of the Buddha
who, because of material benefits obtained,
claimed that they had achieved the Buddhist Way,
but who actually had the dharmas of the fool in this story.
He killed this perfectly fine young person (his son),
in order to fraudulently show off his warm concern and virtuous talents.
In this way they bring about that in their future they suffer endless bitterness.
They are indeed like the brahman who, in order to prove the truth of his own words, killed his son and confused his contemporaries.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 188.8.131.52.0.1||百喻經·煮黑石蜜漿喻/1||
Once upon a time there was a fool
who was boiling Black Stone Honey.
There was a wealthy man
who came to his home,
and at that time the fool thought as follows:
"I must now take this Black Stone Honey and give it to this wealthy man."
Then he put down a little water
and put it into the fire.
And then he used a fan above the fire
hoping thus to succeed in cooling it down.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 184.108.40.206.0.2||百喻經·煮黑石蜜漿喻/2||
A bystander told him:
"If underneath you do not stop the fire
and keep fanning it,
then how are you going to cool this down?"
At that time all the people around laughed at him.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 220.127.116.11.0.3||百喻經·煮黑石蜜漿喻/3||
These are like the dissenters who fail to extinguish the blazing flames of their worries
but who on a small scale practise asceticism
and who rest on brambles,
but of whom the Five Fires roast the bodies,
but who hope for the Way of pure coolness and of peace.
To the end of their days they achieve none of their ends.
They are only blamed and laughed at by the wise of this world.
Their suffering bitterness is present in the current world
and their misfortunes flow into their future kalpas.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 18.104.22.168.0.1||百喻經·說人喜瞋喻/1||
In the past there was a man
who was sitting in his house together with a large group of people.
He waxed enthusiastic about an outsider whose virtuous behaviour was extraordinarily good.
"The outsider has only two faults:
Firstly, the man is given to anger,
and secondly the man is overly rushed in his performance of tasks."
At that moment, this very person walked past the main gate
and heard that someone was making this speech.
He generated anger in himself
and entered into the house
caught hold of the man who had talked of his faults
and knocked him down with his fist.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 22.214.171.124.0.2||百喻經·說人喜瞋喻/2||
A bystander asked him as follows:
"Why are you beating him?"
The man replied as follows:
"When was I ever given to anger and rashness?
But this man claims that I always fly into rages and am rash in action.
That is why I beat him."
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 126.96.36.199.0.3||百喻經·說人喜瞋喻/3||
The bystander talked to him as follows:
"This very moment the evidence of your taste for anger and your rashness is manifest
why do you make a taboo of it?"
By talking about the faults, the man gave rise to resentment and accusations,
The other people around were profoundly amazed at his stupidity and confusion.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 188.8.131.52.0.4||百喻經·說人喜瞋喻/4||
He is like the winoes of this world
who are steeped in alcohol,
and who commit licentious acts
for which they are criticised by others.
But they generate resentment in their hearts.
As best they can they cite evidence
and using this evidence they explain their own position.
They are like this fool
who cannot stand hearing about his own faults.
When he notices others talking about it
he had a desire to beat up the man who was talking.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 184.108.40.206.0.1||百喻經·殺商主祀天喻/1||
Once upon a time there were some merchants
who were about to go to sea.
When it comes to the method of going to sea, one needs a master sailor
before one can leave.
So together they made a search and he got hold of a master sailor.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 220.127.116.11.0.2||百喻經·殺商主祀天喻/2||
When they had found a suitable person
leading each other along they set out
and reached an open field.
There was a temple for sacrifices to Heaven there,
and they needed a human sacrifice before they could pass on.
At that point the merchants thought about things together and said:
"We are all relatives in our group!
How can there be anyone to kill in this sacrifice?
There is only this sailing master who is fitting to be used as human sacrifice to Heaven."
And so they went ahead and killing the sailing master
so as to use him in the sacrifice.
When they had finished with their sacrifice,
they lost their way (having no longer their guide).
They did not know where to head for,
and they all died in dire straights.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 18.104.22.168.0.3||百喻經·殺商主祀天喻/3||
All people of this world are like this.
They desire to enter the sea of the Buddhist dharma, and to pick up the treasures of Buddhism,
they must cultivate proper conduct of the good Buddhist dharma to make it their master.
But they ruin this good conduct
so that from the broad way of the cycle of life and death they will forever have no time at which they can leave.
They experience the three miserable ways of life(in hell, as beasts, as hungry ghosts),
and their suffering distress lasts forever.
They are like those merchants
who are about to go to sea,
but who kill their guide,
so that they lose their way to the fords (that lead the Buddhist truth).
And in the end they reach the stages of distress and death.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 22.214.171.124.0.1||百喻經·醫與王女藥令卒長大喻/1||
Once upon a time there was a king
When he had fathered a daughter
he summoned a physician and told him:
"Give her medicine for me, will you,
that will immediately make her grow up."
The doctor answered:
"I shall give her an effective drug that is able to make her grow up immediately.
However, at the present time I don't have it for the moment.
I must go and look for it.
While I am getting the ingredients
I would like the king never to look at her.
You should wait until I have given her the medine,
then I shall show her to Your Majesty."
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 126.96.36.199.0.2||百喻經·醫與王女藥令卒長大喻/2||
Then, immediately we left for a distant place to obtain the drug.
After twelve years had passed,
he had got hold of the drug and returned with it.
He gave it to the daughter , told her to take the drug,
in order then to show her to the King.
When the King saw her he was delighted
and he then thought to himself:
"He is indeed an excellent physician:
by giving my daughter this medicine
he has been able to make her grow up so suddenly."
Thereupon he ordered his entourage to reward the physician with precious objects.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 188.8.131.52.0.3||百喻經·醫與王女藥令卒長大喻/3||
At this time everybody laughed at the king as being stupid
and for not understanding to calculate the time elapsed since the birth of his daughter,
and for the fact that when he saw that she had grown up
he imagined that this was because of the power of the drug.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 184.108.40.206.0.4||百喻經·醫與王女藥令卒長大喻/4||
The ordinary people of this world are also like this.
When they visit a person who is in the know/a Buddhist teacher
they start out by saying to him:
"I would like to seek the Truth,
I hope to be taught this by you
and that you will let me immediately get to the Truth.
Now the teacher who is in the know, because it is convenient will teach them to sit in meditation and to reflect on the conditions for the rise of the Twelve Causes.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 220.127.116.11.0.5||百喻經·醫與王女藥令卒長大喻/5||
They will then gradually accumulate all sorts of virtues
and they will ancieve Arhatship.
They will redouble their jumping about and be delighted
and they will speak thus:
"How terrific he is, our great master!
So quickly he can make me understand the most wonderful Dharma-truths.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 18.104.22.168.0.1||百喻經·灌甘蔗喻/1||
Once upon a time there were two people
and as they were planting sugar cane together
they made an oath:
"Those of us who will have planted good cane shall be rewarded,
and those of us who will turn out to havve planted bad cane
one must mete out heavy punishment to.
A the time one of these two thought to himself as follows:
"Sugar cane is very sweet
If one squeezes it to obtain the juice
and then goes on to water the sugar cane plant with it
the sweet tastiness will necessarily be even greater,
and I shall gain my victory over that man."
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 22.214.171.124.0.2||百喻經·灌甘蔗喻/2||
Thereupon he squeezed his sugar cane
obtained the juice and used it to water the plant;
he was hoping for an ample sugary flavour,
but, on the contrary, he ruined the seeds;
and all the sugar cane he had was completely lost.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 126.96.36.199.0.3||百喻經·灌甘蔗喻/3||
The common people of this world are also like this:
they desire to seek good fortune
and they rely on their own distinguished status;
they concentrate on their current situation and avail themselves of their positions of eminence,
they oppress the common people;
they violently aquire goods;
and thus they use these to produce good fortune.
Basically they expect good results (for their meritorious actions),
and they do not understand that in the future they will, on the contrary, reap disaster.
They are like those who squeeze the sugar cane,
and they will lose on all accounts.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 188.8.131.52.0.1||百喻經·債半錢喻/1||
Formerly there was a merchant:
he had lent out to someone else half a tael of cash,
for a long time he had not got his money back,
and so he went out for the debt.
In front of him there was a big river,
and he hired someone else for two taels of cash
and only in this way he got to cross the river.
When he got to the other side he went to demand repayment of the debt,
but in the end he did not get to see the man who owed him the money.
As he returned and crossed that river,
he again hired someone for two taels of cash.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 184.108.40.206.0.2||百喻經·債半錢喻/2||
For a debt of half a tael of cash he lost four taels of cash,
and at the same time he suffered exhaustion and the difficulties of travel.
What he was owed was very little,
and what he lost was very much.
In the end he was blamed and laughed by everyone.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 220.127.116.11.0.3||百喻經·債半錢喻/3||
The people of the world are also like this.
They crave material benefits that are unimportant
and they get to destroy the all-important matter of proper Buddhist conduct.
They give unconstrained liberties to their own persons,
and they take no heed of ritual and rectitude.
In the present visible world they suffer a bad reputation,
and in later existences they will get bitter retribution.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 18.104.22.168.0.1||百喻經·就樓磨刀喻/1||
Once upon a time there was a man
who was poor and in straights,
He was working for a king,
and over a long period of time
his body had become all emaciated.
When the king realised this he took pity on him
and he gave him a dead camel.
When the poor man got the camel
he immediately set about taking off the skin.
But because he felt the knife was dull
he tried to find a stone in order to sharpen it
Then upstairs in his house he found a grindstone.
Grinding the knife he made it sharp,
and he went downstairs to fleece the camel.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 22.214.171.124.0.2||百喻經·就樓磨刀喻/2||
In this way, all the time, he went back and forth to sharpen the knife
and in the end he grew very tired.
He was afraid he could not keep going up so often,
and he hung up the camel upstairs
so as to move it to the grindstone and sharpen the knife.
He was profoundly laughed at by everyone.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 126.96.36.199.0.3||百喻經·就樓磨刀喻/3||
He is like the fools
who destroy the Buddhist prohibitions
and who acquire lots of money and property
in order to cultivate their merit
in the hope to acquire immortality.
But their conduct is like hanging up the camel on the second floor in order to sharpen the knife.
The effort expended is very large,
the results obtained are very small.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 188.8.131.52.0.1||百喻經·乘船失釪喻/1||
Once upon a time there was a man who crossed the sea on a ship.
He lost a silver basin
which fell into the water,
and he thought to himself:
"I shall now make a mark in the water to make a record of this."
And he forgot about his basin and went away;
Later, he was going to pick up the basin again.
After a couple of months
he got to the countries of the tigers
where he saw a river.
So he entered into the river,
looking for the silver basin he had lost.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 184.108.40.206.0.2||百喻經·乘船失釪喻/2||
Various people asked him:
"What are you trying to do?"
He replied as follows:
"I lost a water basin some time ago,
and I'm now trying to retrieve it."
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 220.127.116.11.0.3||百喻經·乘船失釪喻/3||
They asked him and said:
"Where did you lose it?"
He replied and said:
"In the beginning when I went to sea I lost it.
They went on to ask:
"Since you lost it, how much time has passed?"
"I lost it a couple of months ago."
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 18.104.22.168.0.4||百喻經·乘船失釪喻/4||
They asked him and said:
"If it is two months since you have lost it,
why look for it here?"
He replied and said:
"When I lost the basin
I made a mark in the water to make a record of this.
The water in which I made this mark is no different from the water here.
That is why I am looking for it in this place."
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 22.214.171.124.0.5||百喻經·乘船失釪喻/5||
They went on to ask him:
"Even if the water is no different,
when some time ago you lost the thing
you were in that place,
and now you go looking in this place.
How would you ever find what you are looking for?"
Thereupon everyone, without exception, laughed out aloud.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 126.96.36.199.0.6||百喻經·乘船失釪喻/6||
They are just like the dissenters
who fail to cultivate the proper behaviour,
in the middle of merely apparent goodness they arbitrarily regard it as a cause for bitterness;
and by this means they seek to gain deliverance.
They are like the fool
who having lost his water basin in one place
goes on to look for it in another place.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 188.8.131.52.0.1||百喻經·人說王縱暴喻/1||
Once upon a time there was a man
who expounded the crimes of his king,
and he spoke as follows:
"The king is reckless,
and in his conduct of government he is unprincipled."
When the king heard this talk
he flew into a rage.
But to the end he never managed to ascertain who had come up with this talk.
He trusted the glib-tongued flatterers near him
and he arrested a worthy minister for the crime.
He ordered the minister to have his back fleeced
and to have taken out 100 liǎng of flesh from his back.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 184.108.40.206.0.2||百喻經·人說王縱暴喻/2||
Someone bore witness that this person had said nothing of the kind,
and the king, in his heart, then regretted what he had done.
He found a thousand taels of meat
and used it to build up the back.
During the night the victim was shouting (with pain)
and to a very great extent he suffered distress.
When the king heard this sound
"Why are you so distressed?
I have taken a hundred taels from you,
and I have returned it to you tenfold.
Do you suppose that was not enough?
Why are you distressed?"
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 220.127.116.11.0.3||百喻經·人說王縱暴喻/3||
The bystander replied as follows:
"Your Grand Majesty
if you had had your son beheaded,
then even if you got a thousand heads in return,
it still is a stubborn fact that your son died.
Even if he gets ten times the amount of flesh
the stubborn fact remains that you suffer bitter pain."
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 18.104.22.168.0.4||百喻經·人說王縱暴喻/4||
The stupid people are also like this.
they have no fear of future existences,
and they crave present pleasures.
They inflict suffering on the living creatures
and they order about the Hundred Families.
They manage to get hold of much property
in the hope of thus being able to wipe out their crimes
and to obtain retribution in the form of happiness.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 22.214.171.124.0.5||百喻經·人說王縱暴喻/5||
For example, that king
who was fleecing the back of the man
and took someone's flesh;
and then he used another person's flesh to replace that flesh,
hoping thereby to make sure the first man suffers no pain.
there is nothing commendable about this.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 126.96.36.199.0.1||百喻經·婦女欲更求子喻/1||
In former times there was a married woman
who to begin with had one son
and who desired to have another son.
She asked another woman:
"Who is able to make me have another son?"
There was an old lady who told this woman:
"I can bring it about that when you try to get a son, you can succeed.
You must sacrifice to Heaven."
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 188.8.131.52.0.2||百喻經·婦女欲更求子喻/2||
She asked the old lady:
"Sacrifice we must what?"
The old lady said:
"You must kill your son
take the blood and sacrifice it to Heaven.
Then you are sure to have many children."
Thereupon this woman, following that advice, wanted to kill her son.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 184.108.40.206.0.3||百喻經·婦女欲更求子喻/3||
Standing by was a wise man
who scoffed at her and scolded her to the face:
"You are utterly stupid,
and thus you have got to this point.
A son that has not yet been born, in the end he may be obtained, may he not be obtained?
But you are (already at this stage) killing your actual present son.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 220.127.116.11.0.4||百喻經·婦女欲更求子喻/4||
The fool is also like this:
for the sake of a not-yet materialised pleasure he throws himself into a firy pit
and he hurts himself in all sorts of ways,
all this in order to obtain immortality.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 18.104.22.168.0.1||百喻經·入海取沈水喻/1||
Once upon a time there was a scion of a distinguished father.
He set out by sea to obtain fragrant alloywood.
After a number of years had passed,
only then did he get one cartload of this timber.
He took this along and returned home.
Then he went to the market to offer it for sale.
But because it was so expensive
as it turned out he found no buyers for it.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 22.214.171.124.0.2||百喻經·入海取沈水喻/2||
For many days he was unable to sell.
So in his mind he generated dissatisfaction
and he considered this troublesome.
He noticed that others, when selling charcoal, were able to sell it quickly
and he generated a thought as follows:
"It will be best to burn it up and make charcoal of it,
then it will be possible to sell it quickly."
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 126.96.36.199.0.3||百喻經·入海取沈水喻/3||
Then he burnt it to produce charcoal,
went to the market and offered it for sale.
He did not even get the price of half a cartload of charcoal.
|Middle Chinese||BAIYU 188.8.131.52.0.4||百喻經·入海取沈水喻/4||
The fools of this world are also like this:
With innumerable expedient means they practise their earnest spiritual endevour and spiritual cultivations,
seeking the fruits of Buddhahood.
But because these are so hard to get
they then go on to develop a tendency to withdraw:
"It is best to make a determined decision to seek the rewards of monkhood and to quickly break of the cycle of life and death, and to become an arhat.