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Text Click for more information BAIYU 1.0.0.0.0.3   百喻經·愚人食鹽喻/3
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BAIYU 1.0.0.0.0.3
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百喻經·愚人食鹽喻/3
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BAIYU
Sequence Nos. 1-6 Click for more information
1 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 3
 
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1 譬彼外道, The fool stands for those dissenters:
2 聞節飲食可以得道, They hear that by controlling what they drink and eat they can obtain the Buddhist Way
3 即便斷食。 and so they cut off nourishment.
4 或經七日, Some survive for seven days,
5 或十五日; others survive for fifteen days.
6 徒自困餓, to no good purpose they make themselves miserable and hungry,
7 無益於道。 and they make no progress towards the Buddhist Way.
8 如彼愚人: They are like that fool:
9 以鹽美故而空食之。 Because of the good taste of salt he went ahead and ate nothing else.
10 致令口爽。 He caused his mouth to feel uncomfortable,
11 此亦復爾。 and this is also like the case of the dissenters.
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Notes on Translation Click for more information (8)
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2 First in the explanation of the Buddhist moral do we have an instance of enjambement, i.e. a syntactic construction which covers several quadrisyllabic lines. In general, the quadrisyllabic style in BAIYU allows any multiple of four characters to form a unit.
2 道 is the standard word for the Buddhist Way: it does not refer to Buddhist truths, but to a Buddhist practice that leads to enlightenment.
3 即便 is a colloquialism which is extraordinarily common in BAIYU.
7 徒/無益於道:this is not technically a HENDIADYS, but the repetition of the dogmatically crucial point is significant and important: this is a paraenetic text designed to change attitudes.
8 如彼愚人 another formulaic expression that recurs throughout BAIYU. The dissenters, or elsewhere the ordinary unenlightened people, the common people, are compared to fools in this mechanical way.
9 以鹽美故 而空食之: this repetitive phrase recalls and dwells on, for meditation,what one has just read, without adding anything of substance.
9 以鹽美故 而空食之: Whether or not this should be treated as a case of enjambement is quite uncertain: there certainly is a clear break after the first four characters.
11 此亦復爾: this formulaic line does no more than dwell in a regurgitating way on what has just been said. It is intellectually quite superfluous but forms a natural part of the preaching style.
 
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Lexeme Entry Attributions Click for more information (21)
  Line No. Click for more information Character(s) Click for more information Phonological Profile Click for more information Synonym Group Label Click for more information Syntactic Category Click for more information Semantic Category Click for more information Lexeme Entry Definition Click for more information Evidential Value Click for more information
1 pì *phiɛ 滂支去 **pheɡs (?) RESEMBLE vtoN be comparable to
1 外道 wài - dào *ŋɑi - dɑu 疑泰去 - 定豪上 **ŋoods - ɡ-luuʔ (?) MISTAKE NP[adN] BUDDH: those of an extraneous doctrine > heretic, follower of a wrong or inferior teaching (can apply to scholars/masters/monks within or without the Buddhist tradition) [CA]
2 jié *tset 精屑入 **tsiiɡ (?) FRUGAL vtoN be moderate in the use of (commodities); show moderation in the exercise of virtues or other practices
2 dào *dɑu 定豪上 **ɡ-luuʔ (?) METHOD nab buddh BUDDH: the Buddhist truth; the Buddhist way; skr. mārga [CA]
2 飲食 yǐn - shí *ʔim - ʑɨk 影侵上 - 船職入 **qrɯmʔ - ɢljɯɡ (?) FOOD NPm food in general; nutrition; mealtime
3 huò *ɦək 匣德入 **ɡʷɯɯɡ (?) SOME npro+V(.postN{TOP}) some, certain individuals (referring to the subject of the verb that follows); some... others; someone
3 duàn *dʷɑn 定桓上 **doonʔ (?) STOP vt+V[0] stop V-ing
3 shí *ʑɨk 船職入 **ɢljɯɡ (?) EAT vt[oN] eat food, eat a meal; have a meal
3 即便 jí - biàn *tsɨk - biɛn 精職入 - 並仙去 **tsɯɡ - bens (?) THEREUPON PPadV.post-S then; at that point in time; then immediately
4 huò *ɦək 匣德入 **ɡʷɯɯɡ (?) SOME npro.adV repeated some... others (often hard to distinguish from "either... or")
5 huò *ɦək 匣德入 **ɡʷɯɯɡ (?) SOME npro+V(.postN{TOP}) some, certain individuals (referring to the subject of the verb that follows); some... others; someone
5 huò *ɦək 匣德入 **ɡʷɯɯɡ (?) SOME npro.adV repeated some... others (often hard to distinguish from "either... or")
6 kùn *khuo̝n 溪魂去 **khuuns (?) DISTRESS vtoN caus.reflex.zi4 cause oneself to be distressed
6 tú *duo̝ 定模平 **daa (?) ONLY padV restr only; just; merely (negated as 非徒 rarely 不徒)
6 tú *duo̝ 定模平 **daa (?) IN VAIN vadV for no good reason, to no purpose
6 è *ŋɑ 疑歌去 **ŋaals (?) HUNGRY vtoN caus.reflex.zi4 cause oneself to be famished; cause oneself to starve
7 yì *ʔiɛk 影昔入 **qleɡ (?) PROFIT vt+prep+N be of benefit to
7 yì *ʔiɛk 影昔入 **qleɡ (?) PROGRESS vt+prep+N make progress in relation to
10 致令 zhì - lìng *ʈi - liɛŋ 知脂去 - 來清平 **k-liɡs - ɡ-reŋ (?) CAUSE VPtt(oN.)+V[0] cause the contextually determinate N to V
11 ěr *ȵiɛ 日支上 **mljelʔ (?) RESEMBLE vi{=vt+npro} to be like this, to be such (stands for verbal predicate) cf. 然
11 亦復 yì - fù *jiɛk - bɨu 以昔入 - 並尤去 **k-laɡ - buɡs (?) ALSO PPadV.postN{SUBJ}:postS also the subject, also under the new circumstances
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Rhetorical Device Attributions Click for more information (14)
  Line From Click for more information Line To Click for more information Rhetorical Device Click for more information Rhetorical Device Definition Click for more information Evidential Value Click for more information
1 8 VARIATIO REPETITIO which consists in reverting to the same meaning using different words.
Use of a different word for similar meaning, at least partly for euphonic variation
1 8 REPETITIO RHETORICAL FIGURE in which one and the same lexical, phonological, syntactic, or semantic element is repeated for rhetorical effect.
/...x...x.../: non-adjacent repetition of the same word, contrast morphological reduplication.
2 7 REPETITIO-ANTITHETIC REPETITIO where the repeated element is used in antithetic contexts.
2 2 ENJAMBEMENT+SYNCOPE 幾個四字格連接法﹣分行不整ENJAMBEMENT in which the line-break is not at a main caesura (syntactic/prosodic break).
2 3 REPETITIO RHETORICAL FIGURE in which one and the same lexical, phonological, syntactic, or semantic element is repeated for rhetorical effect.
/...x...x.../: non-adjacent repetition of the same word, contrast morphological reduplication.
2 7 REPETITIO RHETORICAL FIGURE in which one and the same lexical, phonological, syntactic, or semantic element is repeated for rhetorical effect.
/...x...x.../: non-adjacent repetition of the same word, contrast morphological reduplication.
3 3 REDUNDANTIA QUADRISYLLABISM 四字法 artificial creation of four-character phrases/cola.
4 5 SYMPLOCE REPETITIO of the form "x...y; x...y of one word or phrase at the beginning, and of another at the end, of successive clauses, sentences, or passages, i.e. combination of ANAPHORA and EPIPHORA.
/x...y/x...y/
9 9 ENJAMBEMENT ARHYTHMIA in the form of lack of strong caesura at the end of a line in a text with regular line numbers.
接下行法 Continuation of one construction across two lines. See also ENJAMBEMENT-MULTIPLE, and the converse, STACCATO.
9 REDUNDANTIA QUADRISYLLABISM 四字法 artificial creation of four-character phrases/cola.
10 10 REDUNDANTIA ABUNDANTIA in the form of the use of too many words which add no meaning. Ant: BREVITAS
11 11 FORMULA REPETITIO of a conventional standard formulaic expression in a text.
定形句 Fixed recurring formula, as for example notoriously common in epic poetry and particularly in Homer.
11 11 ARCHAISMUS HISTRIONIC rhetorical device in which the speaker artificially uses obsolete language.
Archaism, deliberate us of out-dated linguistic forms.
11 REDUNDANTIA QUADRISYLLABISM 四字法 artificial creation of four-character phrases/cola.
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