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Text Click for more information BAIYU 1.0.0.0.0.1   百喻經·愚人食鹽喻/1
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BAIYU 1.0.0.0.0.1
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百喻經·愚人食鹽喻/1
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BAIYU
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1 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 1
Text Editions; Translation by Click for more information (possibly modified) BAIYU 1.1
 
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1 昔有愚人, Once upon a time there was a fool
2 至於他家。 who went to another person's home.
3 主人與食, The host gave him something to eat,
4 嫌淡無味。 but he felt it tasted of nothing.
5 主人聞已, When the host heard this
6 更為益鹽。 he added some more salt for him.
7 既得鹽美 When the salt was added, the food tasted quite good
8 便自念言: and then the fool thought to himself as follows:
9 “所以美者, "The reason why it tastes so good
10 緣有鹽故。 is all because of the salt.
11 少有尚爾, If it is like this even with a small amount
12 況復多也! how much more so with a still larger amount.
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Notes on Translation Click for more information (7)
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1 Note the strictly maintained quadrisyllabic rhythm of this parable. The quadrisyllabic style predominates throughout the collection, but enjambement is frequent, as we shall explain below, and deviation from the quadrisyllabic mode is mostly for recognisable reasons.
2 昔有 is the standard formulaic opening of the parables. And 昔有愚人 indicates the general theme of all parables in BAIYU: these parables illustrate and expose the conditions of those who do not follow the true Buddhist way, and not following the Buddhist way is NOT primarily deplored as an act of impiety, but as a matter of stupidity. Buddhism is a matter of prudential wisdom rather than of metaphysical or religious supernatural truth. 昔有愚人 opens seven parables in BAIYU.
5 No explicit speech act is involved, and yet in the next line it becomes clear that an explicit comment was involved. This kind of implied speech is rare in pre-Buddhist Chinese.
6 聞已 is formulaic and frequent not only in BAIYU but also elsewhere.
6 The repetition of the subject 主人 is in interesting contrast to the omission of the explicit subject 客人.
9 念言: Thought, according to Plato's famous explanation, is the dialogue of the soul with itself. It is interesting that the content of thought is introduced here with a speech act verb for "to speak".
10 Note that the primary meaning of 美 is indeed culinary.
 
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Lexeme Entry Attributions Click for more information (36)
  Line No. Click for more information Character(s) Click for more information Phonological Profile Click for more information Synonym Group Label Click for more information Syntactic Category Click for more information Semantic Category Click for more information Lexeme Entry Definition Click for more information Evidential Value Click for more information
1 xī *siɛk 心昔入 **sqaɡ (?) PAST nadSS before; in the past year(s)
1 yán *jiɛm 以鹽平 **k-lam (?) SALT nm man-made salt; salt; sodium chloride
1 愚人 yú - rén *ŋi̯o - ȵin 疑虞平 - 日真平 **ŋo - njin (?) STUPID NP indef a stupid person
2 他/他/它 tā *thɑ 透歌平 **lʰaal (?) / tā *thɑ 透歌平 **lʰaal (?) / tā *thɑ 透歌平 **lʰaal (?) OTHER npro.adN other; others'; someone else's
2 jiā *kɣɛ 見麻平 **kraa (?) HOME n family home (of one family within a clan) 歸家 "return home" [standard gloss: 門之內]
2 yǒu *ɦɨu 云尤上 **ɢʷɯʔ (?) EXIST vt0oN.-V[0] there was an N which V-ed
2 zhì *tɕi 章脂去 **kljiɡs (?) GO TO vt+prep+N go to a place; go to so as to meddle with
3 予/與 yǔ *ji̯ɤ 以魚上 **laʔ (?) / yǔ *ji̯ɤ 以魚上 **k-laʔ (?) GIVE vtt(oN1.)+N2 om give the contextually determinate thing N1 to (someone N2)
3 shí *ʑɨk 船職入 **ɢljɯɡ (?) FOOD nm Note that Lù Démíng reads this meaning as sì in several places of 經典釋文: provisions; food supply; staple food; food for general sustenance while at home; (e.g. beg for) something to eat; food supplies; fodder (e.g. for horses)
4 wèi *mɨi 明微去 **mɯds (?) FLAVOUR nab.post-N feature taste, flavour
4 xián *ɦem 匣添平 **ɡleem (?) DISSATISFIED vtoS be dissatisfied that
4 dàn *dɑm 定談上 **ɡ-laamʔ (?) TASTELESS vi be bland, tasteless
4 主人 zhǔ - rén *tɕi̯o - ȵin 章虞上 - 日真平 **tjoʔ - njin (?) HOST NP host; master of ceremonies; pater familias
4 無味 wú - wèi *mi̯o - mɨi 明虞平 - 明微去 **ma - mɯds (?) TASTELESS VPi tasteless
5 yǐ *jɨ 以之上 **k-lɯʔ (?) WHEN vpostS1.adS2 when; after S1, S2 (yǐ marks the relative temporal anteriority of an event; compare liǎo 了 and bì 畢 in this function) [CA] Compare also 已了 as an expanded form of considerable analytic interest.
6 gèng *kɣaŋ 見庚去 **kraaŋs (?) MORE vadV still more, (before negatives) still less ZUO
6 wèi *ɦiɛ 云支去 (?) FOR vt(oN.)adV om for a contextually deteminate person or cause; for you; for us; for me
6 yì *ʔiɛk 影昔入 **qleɡ (?) INCREASE vtoN increase; give more
6 主人 zhǔ - rén *tɕi̯o - ȵin 章虞上 - 日真平 **tjoʔ - njin (?) HOST NP host; master of ceremonies; pater familias
7 jì *kɨi 見微去 **kɯds (?) WHEN padS1.adS2 when S1, then S2
7 měi *mi 明脂上 **mriʔ (?) SAVOURY nab st.aesthet pleasant flavour, wonderful taste
7 yán *jiɛm 以鹽平 **k-lam (?) SALT nm man-made salt; salt; sodium chloride
8 便 biàn *biɛn 並仙去 **bens (?) THEN padS1.post-S2 then; and then; in order to
8 měi *mi 明脂上 **mriʔ (?) SAVOURY vi comp be of splendid taste, be of good taste 甚美
8 měi *mi 明脂上 **mriʔ (?) SAVOURY nab st.aesthet pleasant flavour, wonderful taste
8 zì *dzi 從脂去 **sblids (?) SELF npro.adV subj contrastive: oneself, by oneself[PERVASIVELY DIFFICULT TO DISTINGUISH FROM THE "PERSONALLY npro.adV"]
8 yán *ŋi̯ɐn 疑元平 **ŋan (?) QUOTATION MARKER vtoS.post-V as follows: S 念言; which runs as follows 作是念言
8 yán *ŋi̯ɐn 疑元平 **ŋan (?) QUOTATION MARKER vtoS.post-V as follows: S 念言; which runs as follows 作是念言
8 自念 zì - niàn *dzi - nem 從脂去 - 泥添去 **sblids - mɢlɯɯms (?) THINK VPt+.VtoS think to oneself 自念言
8 自念言 zì - niàn - yán *dzi - nem - ŋi̯ɐn 從脂去 - 泥添去 - 疑元平 **sblids - mɢlɯɯms - ŋan (?) THINK VPtoS S=quote BUDDH: think to oneself
10 gù *kuo̝ 見模去 **kaas (?) BECAUSE nab.post-S objective (denominal verb?) be objectively because (of the preceding S) NB: the 故 is predicative: "the reason being that"
10 yuàn *jiɛn 以仙去 **k-lons (?) BECAUSE vtoS because 緣有x故
11 shàng *dʑi̯ɐŋ 禪陽去 **djaŋs (?) EVEN padS1.post-S2 even under conditions S
11 měi *mi 明脂上 **mriʔ (?) SAVOURY vi comp be of splendid taste, be of good taste 甚美
12 fù *bɨu 並尤去 **buɡs (?) MORE vadV even more
12 kuàng *hi̯ɐŋ 曉陽去 (?) INTENSELY padS1.post-S2 how much more when
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Lexeme Relation Attributions Click for more information (1)
  Line From Click for more information Line To Click for more information Lexeme Relation Formula Click for more information Lexeme Relation Definition Click for more information Evidential Value Click for more information
5 5 Synon(淡/TASTELESS) = (無味/TASTELESS)
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Rhetorical Device Attributions Click for more information (5)
  Line From Click for more information Line To Click for more information Rhetorical Device Click for more information Rhetorical Device Definition Click for more information Evidential Value Click for more information
2 3 PARALLELISM-RHYTHMIC
2 2 FORMULA REPETITIO of a conventional standard formulaic expression in a text.
定形句 Fixed recurring formula, as for example notoriously common in epic poetry and particularly in Homer.
4 6 ANAPHORA /x.../x.../. REPETITIO of the same initial word in two consecutive cola/lines.
The variable size of the units identified creates different types of ANAPHORA.
5 5 HENDIADYS PLEONASM in two consecutive words.
重言法 The expression of what can be said with one word or expression by the adjacent use of two near-synonymous words or expressions.
11 11 HENDIADYS PLEONASM in two consecutive words.
重言法 The expression of what can be said with one word or expression by the adjacent use of two near-synonymous words or expressions.
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