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Text Click for more information BAIYU 0.0.0.0.0.1   百喻經·Introduction/1
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BAIYU 0.0.0.0.0.1
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百喻經·Introduction/1
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BAIYU
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0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 1
Text Editions; Translation by Click for more information (possibly modified) BAIYUJING 0.1
 
Chinese Text Click for more information Translation Click for more information
1 聞如是: (I) have heard/learnt the following:
2 一時佛住王舍城。 Once upon a time the Buddha lived in the city of the dwelling of the King,
3 在鵲封竹園與諸大比丘菩薩摩訶薩及諸八部三萬六千人俱。 In the Bamboo Part of Quèfēng he was together with all the great monks, bodhisattvas-mahAsattvas and 36 000 of the spirits and spiritual beings of the eight categories (counted as 人!).
4 是時會中有異學梵志五百人俱。 At that time within the saNgha there were gathered five hundred heterodox brahmans.
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Notes on Translation Click for more information (4)
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1 The omission of mayā in the Chinese translation is remarkable: the Chinese language, apparently, does not encourage the use of the first person pronoun at the outset of a book, although there is nothing grammatically wrong with saying 吾聞如是.
如是 "as follows" after a verb of hearing is not pre-Buddhist Chinese.
The cataphoric use of 是 to refer to "what follows, as follows" is not current in pre-Buddhist Chinese. 待考
The use of the passive in the opening sentence would have been outlandish in pre-Buddhist Chinese, and is still unacceptable at this time, since the translator is converting the passive into an active construction.
2 一 "a certain" at the opening of a sentence is not pre-Buddhist Chinese. The standard way of leaving the time open in CC would be to omit mentioning it at all. Here, the Sanskrit corresponds to "once upon a time", and the translator is trying in vain to bring this across in natural Chinese.

3 The architecture of this phrase with its long subject followed by a monosyllabic weak verb offends all rules of Chinese prose style aesthetics.
4 Note that shì 是 here is anaphoric, not cataphoric as in line 1.
 
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Lexeme Entry Attributions Click for more information (18)
  Line No. Click for more information Character(s) Click for more information Phonological Profile Click for more information Synonym Group Label Click for more information Syntactic Category Click for more information Semantic Category Click for more information Lexeme Entry Definition Click for more information Evidential Value Click for more information
1 shì *dʑiɛ 禪支上 **ɡljeʔ (?) THIS npro cataphoric the following (i.e. speech etc)
1 如是 rú - shì *ȵi̯ɤ - dʑiɛ 日魚平 - 禪支上 **nja - ɡljeʔ (?) RESEMBLE NPab text what is as followes> the following text
2 yī *ʔit 影質入 **qliɡ (?) INDEFINITE ARTICLE vadN indef.article a; a certain; any
2 zhù *ɖi̯o 澄虞去 **dos (?) DWELL vtoN su.hu reside in, be in
2 shí *dʑɨ 禪之平 **ɡljɯ (?) THEREUPON npost-npro.adS then, at the time specified by npro
2 一時 yī - shí *ʔit - dʑɨ 影質入 - 禪之平 **qliɡ - ɡljɯ (?) TIME NPadS topic:past Buddhist, idiomatic: at a certain time in the past ("once upon a time" would imply that fictitiousness is implied and acknowledged. Whether it is remains a subtle open isue. The fictitiousness is in any case not openly acknowledged.)
2 王舍城 wáng - shě - chéng *ɦi̯ɐŋ - ɕɣɛ - dʑiɛŋ 云陽平 - 書麻上 - 禪清平 **ɢʷaŋ - lʰaʔ - djeŋ (?) INDIAN PLACE NAMES NPpr trans.meaning (BUDDH:) the City of skr. Rājagṛha, pali Rājagaha (a prospering city in the powerful Indian state Magadha; supposedly Śākyamuni Buddha spent long periods in this state, delivering several of his important sermons, especially on 'Vulture Mountain', 耆闍崛山) [CA]
3 jū *ki̯o 見虞平 **ko (?) TOGETHER vt1post.vt2oN associate with; be together with, be in the company of
3 在/才 zài *dzəi 從咍上 **sɡɯɯʔ (?) / cái *dzəi 從咍平 **sɡɯɯ (?) BE IN vtoN.adV local in; at
3 yǔ *ji̯ɤ 以魚上 **k-laʔ (?) WITH vtoN.adV interact in interaction with; in association with; with; in collusion with, in cooperation with (NB: MOVE THE HOSTILE CASES TO THE HOSTILE VARIANT!)
3 zhū *tɕi̯ɤ 章魚平 **klja (?) PLURAL PREFIXES padN mark N as plural (translates Skt. plural selectively only, hence also before counted nouns)
4 rén *ȵin 日真平 **njin (?) HUMAN ncpost-V{NUM}.post-N cl measure-word for humans 生子二人
4 jū *ki̯o 見虞平 **ko (?) TOGETHER vt1post.vt2oN associate with; be together with, be in the company of
4 shì *dʑiɛ 禪支上 **ɡljeʔ (?) THIS npro.adN ana.N=concrete this above-mentioned N; these above-mentioned Ns
4 shí *dʑɨ 禪之平 **ɡljɯ (?) THEREUPON npost-npro.adS then, at the time specified by npro
4 huì *ɦɑi 匣泰去 **ɡloobs (?) MEET n collective BUDDH: Buddhist community, gathering; saNgha
4 梵志 fàn - zhì *bi̯ɐm - tɕɨ 並凡去 - 章之去 **bloms - kljɯs (?) SCHOLAR NP phon.trans+translation brahman
4 異學 yì - xué *jɨ - ɦɣɔk 以之去 - 匣覺入 **p-lɯɡs - ɡruuɡ (?) MISTAKE VPadN heterodox
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Rhetorical Device Attributions Click for more information (3)
  Line From Click for more information Line To Click for more information Rhetorical Device Click for more information Rhetorical Device Definition Click for more information Evidential Value Click for more information
2 4 ARHYTHMIA-MULTIPLE ARHYTHMIA sustained across several cola/lines.
2 4 ANAPHORA-POST-INITIAL 第二字同端髮 ANAPHORA-APPROXIMATE in which the repeated element is postinitial in the second sentence.
3 4 EPIPHORA REPETITIO of the same word at the end of consecutive lines/cola.
同末法 /...x/...x/ Successive cola ending in the same word or expression.
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