Synonym Group LabelClick for more information STUDY
Classical Chinese LabelClick for more information
Modern Chinese LabelClick for more information
DefinitionClick for more information INVESTIGATE THINGS OR IMITATE ANOTHER so as to STRIVE FOR SKILLFULNESS, KNOWING AND UNDERSTANDING.
Current DistinctionsClick for more information 1. The dominant word is xué 學 (ant. jiào 教 "train teach")which refers primarily to studying or training under another person, and secondarily to the learning by heart texts. Very often, the word retains a tinge of immitation.
2. Shī 師 and cóng 從 refer to deciding to study under someone and treating him as one's teacher.
3. Kǎo 考 refers to an investigation of a subject in a "scientific" spirit.
4. Jiū 究 and yán 研 refers to an in-depth study of a subject, typically involving a fair amount of reflection.
5. Zhì 治 and gōng 攻 refer to the specialised study, typically of a certain text.
6. Xí 習 refers to rehearsal of what one has learnt, through repetition of text and/or through enactment in practice.
NotesClick for more information HUANG JINGUI 2006
EDUCATION 15.
學,學習的通稱。
習,反復練習、鑽研。
效,模仿性學習。
師,拜老師學習。
講,研習。
EDUCATION 16.
研,研究的通稱。
究,重在精深地研究。
治,重在全面地研究。
攻,重在用大力專心研究。
Logical Relationships to other Synonym Groups
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Ascendant Taxonomic Synonym Group(s) Click for more information
STUDY INVESTIGATE THINGS OR IMITATE ANOTHER so as to STRIVE FOR SKILLFULNESS, KNOWING AND UNDERSTANDING.
修, 執, 士, 嫻/間/閒, 學, 師, 從, 攻, 格, 治, 為, 狃, 研, 究, 習, 考, 隨, 博士, 好學, 學問, 學習, 學通, 守學, 從學, 私學, 夏安居
 IMITATE
CONFORM to TYPICAL ACTIONS of a HUMAN OR ANIMAL so as to RESEMBLE THAT HUMAN OR ANIMAL.
仿/放, 倣, 則, 匹, 同, 學, 寫, 并, 式, 從, 憲, 擬, 效, 法, 為, 象, 追, 擬作, 法象
 CONFORM
ACT so as to NOT to OFFEND against RULES OR a MODEL.
並, 中, 予, 亦, 以, 作, 依, 便, 偶/耦, 則, 可, 合, 周, 因, 如, 守, 就, 居, 巧, 巽, 從, 循, 應, 持, 按, 放, 效, 於, 曲, 案, 權, 歸, 比, 猶, 用, 由, 當, 程, 緣, 翕, 聽, 與, 若, 行, 親, 讎, 象, 赴, 踐, 軌, 逐, 遇, 遂, 道, 適, 闔, 隨, 順, 允符, 將從, 應適, 曲順, 相應, 緣合, 逆從, 即合所問
 ACT
MOVE OR NOT MOVE CONFORMING to one's SELF:own DECIDE:decision.
事, 以, 任, 作, 來, 做, 偽, 儀, 償, 加, 動, 執, 增, 如, 實, 居, 履, 庸, 弄, 形, 往, 徑, 從, 復, 徹, 怒, 振, 措, 揮, 操, 施, 有, 服, 業, 治, 為, 然, 爾, 犯, 用, 發, 盡, 知, 習, 肄, 致, 舉, 若, 處, 行, 行, 親, 跡, 踐, 躬, 辦, 造, 關, 風, 體, 事為, 人事, 作事, 作用, 動作, 動靜, 執事, 奉行, 如是, 容止, 實事, 居處, 履行, 從容, 態度, 操行, 施為, 施行, 梵行, 次第, 正行, 為行, 發行, 縱橫, 習行, 舉事, 舉動, 舉措, 行己, 行止, 行為, 行節, 行處, 行身, 起居, 趨舍, 身行, 陳跡/陳蹟
 MOVE
ACTIVELY CHANGE PLACE OR SITUATION.
之, 僨, 動, 去, 奮, 徙, 拂, 挑, 振, 搗, 撓, 撼, 擺, 步, 流, 盪, 移, 翅, 行, 襜, 訛, 詰, 趹, 逮, 遷, 奮激, 徙居, 栖栖, 流行, 移來, 竦動, 轉移, 逃徙, 遷徙, 頡徙
 CHANGE
EVENT involving two MOMENTS t1 and t2, such that a THING at the MOMENT t1 is DIFFERENT FROM that THING at the MOMENT t2.
代, 動, 化, 反, 訛, 幡, 徙, 悛, 改, 易, 更, 殊, 渝, 為, 爰, 爻, 犥/皫, 異, 移, 蛻, 訛, 謫, 譎, 變, 蹈, 轉, 迴, 遞, 遷, 革, 齔, 以為, 化作, 化為, 始終, 幻化, 復反, 推移, 損益, 改化, 改常, 改換, 改易, 改更, 改革, 易徙, 更代, 更國, 更為, 更調, 有他, 朝夕, 法化, 消息, 演為, 潮汐, 無常, 無素, 移改, 移易, 終始, 興衰, 變作, 變動, 變化, 變怪, 變成, 變改, 變易, 變更, 變現, 變異, 變置, 變身, 起滅, 轉化, 轉易, 遷動, 遷謝, 遷變, 非常, 革更
 EVENT
REALITY that HAPPENS in TIME.
下, 事, 匝, 喝, 度, 拳, 摯, 摑, 次, 物, 節, 節, 聲, 轉, 遍, 適, 頓, 大節, 始終
 REALITY
EXISTING and NOT ONLY IMAGINED.
事, 便, 信, 允, 卻, 固, 實, 審, 情, 有, 果, 真, 蓋, 誠, 竟, 中情, 事實, 其實, 如實, 情實, 真實, 究竟
 EXIST
BE-IN the UNIVERSE of SPACE AND TIME.
在, 存, 有, 有, 行, 之有, 五道, 兩存, 兩立, 六趣, 六道, 存亡, 殘有, 生死, 生滅, 畜生, 真有, 餓鬼
 BE IN
RELATION between a THING AND what that THING FILLS OR PART:partially FILLS.
乎, 于, 住, 向, 在/才, 存, 安, 寄, 居, 履, 方, 於, 當, 著, 處, 座下
 RELATION
FEATURE of TWO OR MORE THINGS TOGETHER.
于, 於, 有, 率, 之於, 密率, 相與, 重疊, 所有率, 所求率, 相與率, 重有分, 相當之率
Descendant Taxonomic Synonym Group(s) Click for more information (4)
 COSMOLOGY  
 ESCHATOLOGY  
 ONTOLOGY  
 PHILOSOPHY  
Related Synonym Groups Click for more information (2)
 KNOW  
 LEARN  
Cross References
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LexemesClick for more informationin current Synonym Group ( 26 )
  Character(s) Click for more information Phonological Profile Click for more information Syntactic Categories Click for more information Lexeme Definition Click for more information No. of Lexeme Entries Click for more information No. of Lexeme Relations Click for more information
xué *ɦɣɔk 匣覺入 **ɡruuɡ nab, vadN, vi, vt(+V[0]), vt(oN), vt+prep+N, vt+V[0], vtoN, vttoN1.+prep+N2 The dominant word is xué 學 (ant. jiào 教 "train teach")which refers primarily to studying or training under another person, and secondarily to the learning by heart texts. Very often, the word retains a tinge of immitation. 16 5
shī *ʂi 生脂平 **sril vt+prep+N, vtoN Shī 師 and cóng 從 refer to deciding to study under someone and treating him as one's teacher. 4 0
學問 xué - wèn *ɦɣɔk - mi̯un 匣覺入 - 明文去 **ɡruuɡ - mɯns NPab, NPm, VPi, VPt+prep+N 4 0
chí *ɖɨ 澄之平 **rlɯ vt(oN), vtoN Zhì 治 and gōng 攻 refer to the specialised study, typically of a certain text. 2 0
好學 hào - xué *hɑu - ɦɣɔk 曉豪去 - 匣覺入 **qhuus - ɡruuɡ NPab, VPi delight in study 2 0
jiū *kɨu 見尤去 **kus vi, vtoN Jiū 究 and yán 研 refers to an in-depth study of a subject, typically involving a fair amount of reflection. 2 0
私學 sī - xué *si - ɦɣɔk 心脂平 - 匣覺入 **sil - ɡruuɡ NPab, VPi 2 0
xí *zip 邪緝入 **sɢlɯb vt[oN], vtoN 2 0
<韻調?> vtoN 1 0
博士 bó - shì *pɑk - ɖʐɨ 幫鐸入 - 崇之上 **paaɡ - dzrɯʔ NP{vadN} 1 0
從學 cóng - xué *dzi̯oŋ - ɦɣɔk 從鍾平 - 匣覺入 **dzoŋ - ɡruuɡ VPtoN 1 0
gé *kɣɛk 見陌入 **kraaɡ vtoN 1 0
kǎo *khɑu 溪豪上 **khuuʔ vtoN Kǎo 考 refers to an investigation of a subject in a "scientific" spirit. 1 0
niǔ *ɳɨu 娘尤上 **m-luʔ vtoN 1 0
shì *ɖʐɨ 崇之上 **dzrɯʔ n 1 0
守學 shǒu - xué *ɕɨu - ɦɣɔk 書尤上 - 匣覺入 **qhjuʔ - ɡruuɡ VPi 1 0
wéi *ɦiɛ 云支平 **ɢʷal vtoN 1 0
夏安居 xià - ān - jū *ɦɣɛ - ʔɑn - ki̯ɤ 匣麻去 - 影寒平 - 見魚平 **ɡraas - qaan - ka VPi 1 0
嫻/間/閒 xián *ɦɣɛn 匣山平 / jiān *kɣɛn 見山平 **kreen / <韻調?> vtoN 1 0
xiū *sɨu 心尤平 **sqlɯw vtoN 1 0
學通 xué - tōng *ɦɣɔk - thuŋ 匣覺入 - 透東平 **ɡruuɡ - kh-looŋ VPtoN 1 0
學習 xué - xí *ɦɣɔk - zip 匣覺入 - 邪緝入 **ɡruuɡ - sɢlɯb VPtoN 1 0
yán *ŋen 疑先平 **ŋɡeen vtoN Jiū 究 and yán 研 refers to an in-depth study of a subject, typically involving a fair amount of reflection. 1 0
zhí *tɕip 章緝入 **tjib vtoN 1 0
cóng *dzi̯oŋ 從鍾平 **dzoŋ   0 0
gōng *kuo̝ŋ 見冬平 **kuuŋ   Zhì 治 and gōng 攻 refer to the specialised study, typically of a certain text. 0 0
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Lexeme Relations Click for more information (5)
Contrast(學/STUDY) = (思/THINK)
Conv(學/STUDY) = (誨/TEACH)
Epithet(學/STUDY) = (博/BROAD)
Inconsist(學/STUDY) = (固/故/STUBBORN)
Relat(學/STUDY) = (講/DISCUSS)
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Modern Chinese Lexemes Click for more information in current Synonym Group
  研究
鑽研


研討
切磋
切磋琢磨
探究
探索
探討
根究
推究
深究
追究


鉤深致遠
探賾索隱
用功
用心
篤學
好學
苦讀
苦學
勤學
囊螢
映雪
啃書
口不絕吟
手不釋卷
十年窗下
十年寒窗
學而不厭
勤學苦練
學如不及
好學不倦
韋編三絕
遜志時敏
懸梁刺股
引錐刺股
鑿壁偷光
囊螢照書
雞窗夜讀
下帷攻讀
目不窺園
三年不窺園
rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH/
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Sources Click for more information (8)
  Source Reference Click for more information Notes Click for more information
BUCK, 17.42.2.
COMENIUS 1665, 510©. DISCERE quod qvis nescit, scire laborare. Sive est rem aliqvam ignotam per aliqvam notam assequi.
Occurrunt ergo in discendo 1. Res aliqva ignota. 2. Cognoscendi eam aviditas. 3. Medium seu notum aliqvod, per qvod illuc promovemur.
Est ititur velut qvidam Motus, quo Mobile a termino dat illo nixum ad terminum alium inde distantem se promovet. NB Praenotum illud dicitur Principium cognosendi.
Ax. Non ignotum non discitur....Discere facilius qvam dediscere. Qvicqvid discitur, sit Unum (seu breve, seu continuum), Verum (vere sensum implens) Bonum (jucundum seu utile).
[Aut prodesse volunt aut delectare poetae, aut simul et jucunda et idonea dicere vitae. Horace, Ad Pisones]
DUFOUR 1910, 13.
GIRARD 1769, 1.50.36. ETUDIER.APPRENDRE; APPRENDRE.S'INSTRUIRE
LANGIUS 1631. MATHESIS
STUDIUM
Mel'cuk 1984, 911ff.
MENGE, 228. cultus animi refers to spiritual culture.
doctrina refers to learning as the result of studying with someone and of receiving instruction within a well-defined narrow field.
eruditio refers to leaning as the result of formal instruction or education in a broad sense.
scientia refers to knowledge or intellectual competence as a whole, theoretical as well as practical understanding.
notitia is passively the fact of being known and actively the knowledge of or awareness of something.
cognitio is inchoative and refers to cognition as the beginning of understanding.
disciplina refers to the practical facility which results from studying a certaion well-defined area of instruction.
UEDING 1992ff, 9.221.
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Modern Chinese Scientific Terminologies Click for more information (64)
  Character(s) Click for more information English Translation Click for more information
佛學 study of buddhism
修身 the study of morality
兒童研究 child study
兒童研究 child study
公法之學 study of international law
勉強 study
博物之理 (study of nature)
study
to study
(study)
學古 classical study
學問 (study)
學業 study
學業 (study)
學科 course of study
學科 course (of study)
學科 branch of study
學習 to study
學習 (study)
專課 technical study
專課 (special field of study)
專長之學問 technical study
律學 (study of law)
性學 (study of nature)
性理 (study of nature)
攻書 study
攻書 to study
星學 study of astronomy
格物 physics, the study of nature
格物 (study of nature)
武學 military studies (military study)
法學 study of law
火學 (study of heat)
火學 (study of heat)
熱學 (study of heat)
理學 (study of nature)
理科 (science - as a field of study)
理科 (nature study?)
理科 (science (as a field of study))
留學 (study abroad)
研究 (study)
研究 (study)
研究 (study)
研究 (study)
研究 (study)
course (of study)
算學 (study of mathematics)
經典館 (school for study of scriptures)
致用學 professional study
行善之道 the study of morality
課目 (topic or subject of study)
課程 rules of study
課程 course (of study)
讀書 to study
讀書 (study)
讀書 (study)
讀書房 study
豫科 preparatory course of study
農學 agriculture as a study
退學 to give up study
遊學 (study abroad)
道學 study of rules
鄉土科 (study of local history)
醫學 study of medicine
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