An Historical and Comparative Encyclopaedia of Chinese Conceptual Schemes
General Editor: Christoph Harbsmeier 何莫邪; Associate Editor: Jiang Shaoyu 蔣紹愚
Rhetorical Devices / Hitlist
|ABNUENTIA||ADDRESS in the form of a refusal to do something or to accept a truth claim that has been made.|
ADDRESS designed to insult one's addressee.
Insulting form of address, direct insult to the face.
Contrast EXECRATIO, which is not face-to-face.
|ABRUPTIO||Abrupt and unpolished spontaneous RHETORICAL STYLE.|
|ABUNDANTIA||RHETORICAL STYLE which prefers extensive and expansive, sometimes redundant, use of language.|
ANOMALIA in the form of improper or extended use of a word in a meaning deviating from its basic meaning.
Also called catachresis in Latin. Greek: katachreesis.
|ACCESSUS AD AUCTORES||PREFACE|
插入總結感嘆法 METALINGUISTIC COMMENT in the form of a summary emphatic evocation of the overall significance or import of one's narrative or argument.
|ACCUMULATIO||REPETITIO of the same basic semantic content in a series of semantically distinct but near-synonymous expressions.|
|ACCUMULATIO-DISJUNCTIVE||重堆法﹣選擇 ACCUMULATIO in the form of the unmarked juxtaposition of several expressions in a disjunctive mode.|
ADDRESS designed to declare one's addressee guilty of a crime.
Accusation to the face, typically specifying illegal or immoral acts that are claimed to have been committed by the accused.
互相指責法 Mutual ACCUSATIO; later: mutual insult.
Also known as ACCUSATIO CONCERTATIVA.
WORD PLAY in which the first letters of each line combine to make a word suggested by the series of lines.
Text in which the first letters of each line combine to make up an intended expression, also called acrostic.
|ACUTEZZA||URBANITAS in the form of a pregnant, short and witty often humourous remark.|
ANOMIA or VITIUM in the form of a manifestly and deliberately wrong use of a word.
Use of a manifestly wrong word as a deliberate rhetorical device.
Contrast MALAPROPISM which focusses on the maladroit demonstration of lack of proper learning and education precisely through the effort to show off such education or learning.
|ADDITIO||RHETORICAL FIGURE which consists in the addition of something to an existing expression.|
|ADDRESS||SPEECH ACT of explicitly addressing an audience.|
|ADHORTATIO||ADDRESS to an audience in the form of an exhortation or encouragement towards a certain action or a certain kind of recommended behaviour.|
AMBIGUITAS in which there is one obvious meaning and another hidden intended meaning.
An expression that has an obvious superficial meaning and another unsuspected and underlying secret meaning.
EXCLAMATIO expressing surprise or amazement.
歎稱法，贊稱法 Emphatic reference to something with an attendant expression of the speaker's amazement at it, and the expected astonishment of the audience.
Easy to confuse with EXCLAMATIO which focusses on plain exclamatory expression of the speaker's emotion
Late Greek: thaumasmos.
|ADNARRATIO||NARRATIO of a subsidiary kind which serves to explain or elaborate a detail in another main story.|
|ADULATIO||諂媚對話法 ADDRESS designed to function as flattery.|
|ADULATIO-FLATTERING-ADDRESS||典型諂媚稱謂法 ADULATIO in the form of a standardised or ritualised flattery through flattering terminology of adress.|
|ADULATIO-FLATTERING-DESCRIPTION||典型諂媚描寫法 ADULATIO in the form of standardised or ritualised flattery through flattering description.|
ADULATIO with a strong element of self-deprecation.
典型諂媚﹣自謙法 Self-deprecatory flattery.
|ADULATIO+SELF-DEPRECATION-MULITPLE||重疊典型諂媚﹣自謙法 ADULATIO in the form of self-deprecatory flattery, multiple.|
|ADVERB-RAISING||METAPLASMUS in which an adverb is moved from its logical position in the phrase higher up in the syntactic tree, as for example in 常當 "one should always".|
|ADVOCATIO DEI||HISTRIONICS which consists in the speaker taking on the role of arguing for the ultimate truth rather than its opposite which is argued for by the advocatus diaboli.|
HISTRIONIC device in which the speaker takes on the role of the "advocate of the devil", arguing as best he can for the case that is being dismissed.
魔鬼詭辯法 Advocacy of a proposition which is the opposite of what is generally accepted by everyone, including the speaker.
|AEMULATIO||IMITATIO of an admired work or author, with the aim of equalling or surpassing the object thus emulated.|
HISTRIONIC rhetorical device in which the speaker/writer expresses himself in a deliberately enigmatic way, making it hard to understand his meaning.
Deliberately obscure or esoteric allegory or metaphor.
See NOEMA. This must be carefully distinguished from simple use of recondite language, and the distinction is often hard to make post festum because what may seem recondite to us might often well have been colloquial and current to the ancients, though not well attested in the formal literature.
Ancient Chinese: Very common.
|AEQUIVOCATIO||REPETITIO of the same word but in a significantly different meaning in an argument creating the appearance of coherence of thought where there is none.|
|AETIOLOGIA||後補自釋法 METALINGUISTIC COMMENT in the form of the giving of reasons for a sentence already uttered, usually involves the giving of reasons immediately after a statement.|
|AFFECTATIO||SOLOECISMUS in the form of maladroit pretentious learnedness.|
|AFFICTIO||RATIOCINATIO in which one wrongly attributes to one's opponent a statement which one then goes on to refute.|
|AFFIRMATIO||SPEECH ACT of not only mentioning but affirming a sentence, i.e. making a statement which involves a truth-claim.|
|AGITATIO||ADHORTATIO which openly encourages coordinated common action, often drastic action.|
ANOMIA in the form of use of unacceptable vulgar language.
(The vice of) foul speech and swearing.
This is sometimes also referred to as cacemphaton. The Vergil commentator Servius currently expostulates: Ecce cacemphaton! when he spots what in Latin corresponds to a four-letter word.
This must be distinguished from AMBIGUITAS-OBSCOENA which involved unresolved ambiguity which demonstratively leaves room for an obscene interpretation.
|ALEATORISM||RHETORICAL TROPE by which one is openly guided by chance in what one says or writes.|
Extended narrative METAPHORA.
Sustained metaphorical discourse, typically in a narrative context.
|ALLITERATION||同聲母法 Successive words beginning with the same sound or sounds: x... x...|
|ALLITERATION-FLIPFLOP||同聲母同韻尾法 Successive words beginning with the same sound or sounds and ending with the same sound or sounds, but with different main vowels.|
Intertextual METALINGUISTIC COMMENT in the form of referrring indirectly to another text.
Allusion, veiled reference to a text presupposed to be known to the intended readership.
This must be distinguished from QUOTATION-UNMARKED which involves not veiled reference but direct unacknowledged citation..
WORD-PLAY which mainly consists in the deliberate artistic and playful display of expressions with several meanings within the given context, often but not always with sustained ambiguity.
雙關法 Sustained ambiguity as a deliberate rhetorical ploy.
黃色雙關法 AMBIGUITAS in the form of deliberate unresolved ambiguity which demonstratively leaves room for a reading which is obscene.
Commonly known as "amphibolia obscoena".
ANOMIA in the form of a syntactically incoherent sentence.
Change of construction in mid-sentence, syntactic incoherence.
REPETITIO of the last word of a colon/line at the beginning of the nex colon/line.
/...x/x.../. Repetition of the last character in colon one at the beginning of colon two.
ANADIPLOSIS between not identical but analogous elements.
Contrast ANADIPLOSIS-ANTITHETIC where the analogy is between opposites in a broad sense.
|ANADIPLOSIS-ANTITHETIC||ANADIPLOSIS between elements that are broadly speaking the opposite of each other.|
ANADIPLOSIS between identical elements, but with intervening elements.
When the intervening elements are standard particles, the cases tend to be registered as plain ANADIPLOSIS.
|ANADIPLOSIS-CHIASTIC||ANADIPLOSIS with CHIASMUS|